The Three great Empires: Ottoman, Savafid, and Mughal

1. Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire was a state that occupied southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. The Ottoman empire was the pioneer in using gunpowder firearms. It was in the 14th century, the Ottoman embraced this new weapon and formed permanent troops specialized in the manufacturing and handling of firearms. By the reign of Bayazid I, the Ottoman had an artillery and used them in the sieges of Constantinople in 1399 and 1402. By the rule of Sultan Mehmed II, he equipped his infantry with firearms and probably become the first infantry force with firearms in the world.


2. Safavid Empire

The Safavid empire was often acknowledged as the beginning of Iranian history. The Safavid shahs ruled the test Iranian empire after 7th century and embrace the use of firearms in 1521. In 1521 had musketeers around 20,000. Abbas The Great reformed an army with 500 canons and 12,000musketeers. They used their first gunpowder artillery to fight against the Uzbeks, who invaded eastern Persian during the civil war.

Credit: Getty images/ encyclopedia Iranica

3. Mughal Empire

Mughal Empire is an empire founded in 1526. The empire ruled by Moslem dynasty Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia but through a marriage, the alliance has possessed Indian Rajput and  Persian ancestry. The territory of Mughal empire was nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. The Mughal emperor Babur who reign in 1526-1530 was invited by Daulat Khan, Lodi governor of Lahore, to assist his rebellion against Lodi Sultan Ibrahim Khan. At that time Babur, the Mughal emperor familiar with the use of firearms, field artillery and a method for deploying them. He asked for the Ottoman expert Ustad Ali Quli, who showed Babur the standard Ottoman formation—artillery and firearm-equipped infantry protected by wagons in the center and the mounted archers on both wings. He used this formation at the first battle of Panipat in 1526.

Credit: Photo by lonely planet /

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